Exact prices change frequently, which is why only approximate ranges are listed.
$ - Under $5
$$ - Between $6 and $50
$$$ - Between $51 and $250
$$$$ - Over $250
Allen, A. P., and A. P. Smith. “Effects of Chewing Gum and Time-on-Task on Alertness and Attention.” Nutritional Neuroscience, vol. 15, no. 4, 2012, pp. 176–185., doi:10.1179/1476830512y.0000000009.
Arnsten, A. F. (2009). Stress signalling pathways that impair prefrontal cortex structure and function. Nature reviews neuroscience, 10(6), 410.
Eichenbaum, H., Dudchenko, P., Wood, E., Shapiro, M., & Tanila, H. (1999). The hippocampus, memory, and place cells: is it spatial memory or a memory space?. Neuron, 23(2), 209-226.
Ginns, P., Kim, T., & Zervos, E. (2019). Chewing gum while studying: Effects on alertness and test performance. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 33(2), 214-224.
Hirano, Y., Obata, T., Kashikura, K., Nonaka, H., Tachibana, A., Ikehira, H., & Onozuka, M. (2008). Effects of chewing in working memory processing. Neuroscience Letters, 436(2), 189-192.
Holling, L., Fok, D., Massad, M., Page, J. D., & Silvers, W. M. (2018). EFFECTS OF PEPPERMINT AND FRUIT FLAVORED CHEWING GUM ON HEART RATE, COGNITIVE SPEED, AND ACCURACY. International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings (Vol. 8, No. 6, p. 37).
Johnson, A. J., Jenks, R., Miles, C., Albert, M., & Cox, M. (2011). Chewing gum moderates multi‐task induced shifts in stress, mood, and alertness. A re‐examination. Appetite, 56, 408–411.
Konno, M., Nakajima, K., Takeda, T., Kawano, Y., Suzuki, Y., & Sakatani, K. (2020). Effect of Gum Chewing on PFC Activity During Discomfort Sound Stimulation. In Oxygen Transport to Tissue XLI (pp. 113-119). Springer, Cham.
Miquel, S., Haddou, M. B., & Day, J. E. (2019). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of mastication on sustained attention. Physiology & behavior.
Scholey, A., Haskell, C., Robertson, B., Kennedy, D., Milne, A., & Wetherell, M. (2009). Chewing gum alleviates negative mood and reduces cortisol during acute laboratory psychological stress. Physiology & behavior, 97(3-4), 304-312.
Smith, A. (2009). Chewing gum, stress and health. Stress and Health, 25, 445–451.
Smith, A. P., & Woods, M. (2012). Effects of chewing gum on the stress and work of university students. Appetite, 58, 1037–1040.
Smith, A. P., Chaplin, K., & Wadsworth, E. (2012). Chewing gum, occupational stress, work performance and wellbeing. An intervention study. Appetite, 58(3), 1083-1086.
Tänzer, U., Von Fintel, A., & Eikermann, T. (2009). Chewing gum and concentration performance. Psychological reports, 105(2), 372-374.
Tucha, L., & Simpson, W. (2011). The role of time on task performance in modifying the effects of gum chewing on attention. Appetite, 56(2), 299-301.
Tucha, O., Mecklinger, L., Maier, K., Hammerl, M., & Lange, K. W. (2004). Chewing gum differentially affects aspects of attention in healthy subjects. Appetite, 42(3), 327-329.
Wilkinson, L., Scholey, A., & Wesnes, K. (2002). Chewing gum selectively improves aspects of memory in healthy volunteers. Appetite, 38(3), 235-236.
Wilson, A., Kim, W., & Raudenbush, B. (2016). The Effects of Chewing Cinnamon Flavored Gum on Mood, Feeling and Spelling Acquisition. English Language Teaching, 9(6), 223-228.
Yaman‐Sözbir, Ş., Ayaz‐Alkaya, S., & Bayrak‐Kahraman, B. (2019). Effect of Chewing Gum on Stress, Anxiety, Depression, Self‐Focused Attention and Academic Success: A randomized controlled study. Stress and Health.
Yuda, E., Yoshida, Y., & Hayano, J. (2018, June). Effects of Chewing Gum on Differential Components of Psychomotor Vigilance: Improved Sustained Attention with Prolonged Reaction Time. In 2018 Joint 7th International Conference on Informatics, Electronics & Vision (ICIEV) and 2018 2nd International Conference on Imaging, Vision & Pattern Recognition (icIVPR) (pp. 55-58).