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Group Reading

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Group reading is a common practice in guided reading. Students follow along with each other and remain on the same page of a book while each student reads one at a time in turn. The purpose of group reading is to teach reading skills. Students must be able to decode words and to read fluently.

Story Time

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During story time teachers typically read stories or books to a full class of students. Students are required to manage their behaviour and attention to the story.

Textbook Reading

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Textbook reading involves the process of reading informational text and interpreting graphs and figures.

Expository reading

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Expository reading refers to the process of reading informational text in order to learn more about a topic.

Narrative Reading

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Narrative reading refers to the process of reading stories or novels.

Word Reading

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Word reading is the ability to read individual words in isolation.

Reading Fluency

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Reading fluency is the ability to recognize words and read them aloud quickly and with good expression.


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Vocabulary is the understanding of word meanings. Understanding the meaning of words is applicable to reading, writing, math, and oral language. This can be defined as the number of words a person recognizes (breadth) as well as the level at which the person understands and uses them.


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Decoding is the process of "sounding out" a word. Students must be able identify the letter sounds and to blend the sounds together.

Reading Comphrehension Activities

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Reading comprehension is the ability to understand what one has read. It requires the ability to decode words, and to fluently read as well as strategies to make connections to what one has read.

Blackboard Instruction

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Blackboard instruction typically involves a combination of oral presentation of information by a teacher in combination with visual displays. Blackboard instruction is typically presented to entire classes of students.

Carpet Time

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Carpet time is common in the younger elementary grades. It requires students to sit still and to focus on the instruction being provided by their teacher.


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Lecturing typically invovles a teacher presenting information to a class orally. Students must listen to and comprehend the information that is being presented, and are often required to take notes.

Cooperative Learning

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Cooperative learning is taking place any time students are working together on a project or other task. It requires oral communication and the ability to get along with others.

Paper and Pencil Work

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Paper and pencil tasks require students to be able to use a writing instrument (fine motor skills), to be able to read the worksheet that they must complete, and to have written expression skills.


Description of field

Graphomotor, Text


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Executive Functioning

Executive Functioning, or EF, is the ability to make plans, organize, self monitor, and reflect on errors. While there are no current techs for EF, the broad skill "Organization" is a good place to support children with EF difficulties.


Alertness is the subset of attention that includes system arousal and the capacity to notice information


Orienting is the specific aspect of attention related to staying focused on a target, discernment, and avoiding distractions.


Attention is the broad range ability to sustain concentration on a task.


Metacognition is the awareness of one’s own actions and thoughts; the ability to imagine one’s self from the outside perspective in.


The technologies provide alternative or augmentative forms of communication for individuals who have challenges with speech.

Background Information

These technologies can assist individuals with gathering background information for comprehension.

Word Problems

Word problems present information students must use to find the solution as written text. Word problems are complex to master and involve a number of academic and cognitive skills, including reading, numerical operations and applications, organization, and memory skills, among others. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics has identified problem solving as one of the five process standards that are necessary for students to master because without problem solving, students only learn how to compute, rather than why and when to use these computational mathematics skills (Browder et al., 2017). Students with Learning Disabilities often struggle the most with word problems.

Organization and Graphomotor

Graphomotor skills refer to the broad combination of skills that make up the process of putting ideas into written text

Numeric Operation and Fluency

Numeric Operations are core mathematics skills, which include the ability to compute the solutions to a variety of problems including addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

Self Management

Self-management refers to ways to organize and remember important information related to an individual’s own, personal information.

Time Management

Time management refers to ways to schedule such that the individual has some way of reminding themselves for activity transitions, recording time spent, and or staying on task.

Material Management

Material management refers to ways to organize documents for later access or assignments on which and individual is working.

Information Management

Information management refers to ways to organize and remember important information.


​Assistive technologies exist to help individuals with limited vision or complete vision loss to read text. While users may rely mainly on one of the available assistive technology, many users report using a combination of the available assistive technologies depending on the length, organization, and context of the text file that they are required to read (D'Andrea, 2012).


Hearing is the ability to perceive sounds. Individuals’ verbal and social development are hindered by even mild hearing impairments (Jesitus, 2014), therefore it is important to assess for and accommodate for hearing impairment using assistive technologies as early as possible.


Typing is utilizing a keyboard system to input information. Consultation with an Occupational Therapist is advised.


Graphomotor skills refer to the broad combination of skills that make up the process of putting ideas into written text (e.g., handwriting). Consultation with an Occupational Therapist is advised.


Mobility refers to the ability to physically interact in the world. Consultation with an Occupational Therapist is advised.

Gross Motor

These devices can assist individuals who need assistance inputting information into a computer due to challenges with whole-body coordination. Consultation with an Occupational Therapist is advised.

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