Digital Input

Overview

               Digital Equation Input Tools, sometimes just called digital input, are programs that have mathematical equations built into them. These tools allow users to select numbers and operators from a virtual keyboard. Some also allow drawing using a stylus or touch screen and will recognize shapes and numbers. These can be manipulated and dragged around a screen much like shapes can in a word document. Digital input tools differ from calculators in that they do not solve equations for the student. Rather, they allow a more organized writing out of key numbers and symbols, effectively making a student’s work neater and more readable. They also usually have some form of word processing notepad or grid on which the equations selected are automatically presented in a clean and readable fashion.

               While digital input tools themselves have not been empirically tested, there is a cluster of literature supporting the theory behind them. First, it has been shown that math skills are learned, and ideally taught, iteratively (Rittle-Johnson, Siegler, & Alibali, 2001). That is, simple skills must be taught before higher level abstract or complex skills. It can therefore be assumed that if a simple skill a student has trouble with (e.g. messy work) is supported using a tool, it will likely make their math easier. Second, messy work has consistently been shown for many years to make revisions more challenging, as well as lead to more errors in math work (Clemments, 1982; Macan et al, 1990). Because of this, it can safely be assumed that applying a more organized tool to help students who tend to have messy, illegible, or disorganized work, will improve their ability. Finally, digital math instruction and techniques have been shown in a more general sense to help students, both motivational, and on test scores. When students using digital textbooks and associated media for math instruction were compared to hard copy books, the students with digital tools scored higher test results and also reported enjoying math more (Lewis, Noble, & Soiffer, 2010).

 

 

Research Rating

There is no research directly testing digital input tools for math. However there is strong empirical support for related areas of organizational support and digital media being an effective support.

 

Advantages

  • Allows access to other digital tools

  • May help students focus on conceptual and numerical aspects of math

  • May make work easier to revise for students and teachers

Disadvantages

  • Limited direct empirical research

 

To Consider

May be more appealing if a student is already using online or other digital media

Exact prices change frequently, which is why only approximate ranges are listed. 

$ - Under $5

$$ - Between $6 and $50

$$$ - Between $51 and $250

$$$$ - Over $250

References

Clements, M. A. (1982). Careless Errors Made by Sixth-Grade Children on Written Mathematical Tasks. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 13(2), 136. doi: 10.2307/748360

Lewis, P., Noble, S., & Soiffer, N. (2010). Using accessible math textbooks with students who have learning disabilities. Proceedings of the 12th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility - ASSETS 10. doi: 10.1145/1878803.1878829

 

Macan, T. H., Shahani, C., Dipboye, R. L., & Phillips, A. P. (1990). College students time management: Correlations with academic performance and stress. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(4), 760–768. doi: 10.1037//0022-0663.82.4.760

Rittle-Johnson, B., Siegler, R. S., & Alibali, M. W. (2001). Developing conceptual understanding and procedural skill in mathematics: An iterative process. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(2), 346–362. doi: 10.1037//0022-0663.93.2.346

Academic Intervention Lab

Department of Applied Psychology and Human Development

Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, Toronto, ON M5S 1V6, Canada
     Email: academicinterventionlab@utoronto.ca

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